Не скачивайте, не работает и не стоит Разраб уродец. Удивительно, что это приложение не стоит повыше в рейтинге, ведь оно единственное вывозит и загружает веб-сайты трехглавой без фигни. Хотя почитав отзывы на остальные приложения, можно осознать, что их спецом накручивают, чтоб побольше наебывать людей. Я чрезвычайно долго с сиим ебалась, потому помогу кому нибудь хорошим советов. Скачивайте это приложение как браузер, скачивайте vpn-приложение раздельно я юзала какое то с зелёным ключиком и пользуйтесь лишь проверенными ссылками.
И естественно же, мое любимое, когда все сделали что нужно, ну зайдите вы ради бога в собственный Apple ID и отмените платные подписки. Давайте обучаться воспользоваться телефонами и будет для вас радость! The following data may be used to track you across apps and websites owned by other companies:. The following data may be collected and linked to your identity:. Privacy practices may vary based on, for example, the features you use or your age.
Learn More. Up to six family members will be able to use this app with Family Sharing enabled. Mac App Store Preview. Screenshots Mac iPhone iPad. Ratings and Reviews. Secret browser to protect your anonymity. Browse anonymously and block ads. Private Internet Access. App Privacy. Size The following data may be collected but it is not linked to your identity:.
If a site you normally visit suddenly returns when visiting over Tor, the service is likely blocking Tor traffic and being needlessly opaque about it. Tor Browser routes all your web traffic through the Tor network, anonymizing it. Tor Browser connects at random to one of the publicly listed entry nodes, bounces that traffic through a randomly selected middle relay, and finally spits out your traffic through the third and final exit node. These services look at your IP address and guesstimate your country and language, but when using Tor, you will often appear to be in a physical location halfway around the world.
If you live in a regime that blocks Tor or need to access a web service that blocks Tor, you can also configure Tor Browser to use bridges. The Tor network routes TCP traffic of all kinds but is optimized for web browsing. For most people reading this article, Tor Browser is completely legal to use.
In some countries, however, Tor is either illegal or blocked by national authorities. China has outlawed the anonymity service and blocks Tor traffic from crossing the Great Firewall. Countries such as Russia, Saudi Arabia and Iran, are working hard to prevent citizens from using Tor. Most recently, Venezuela has blocked all Tor traffic. The service makes it easy for journalists to report on corruption and helps dissidents organize against political repression. The freedom to communicate, publish, and read anonymously is a prerequisite for freedom of expression online, and thus a prerequisite for democracy today.
Using and supporting Tor helps support freedom of expression around the world. Technically sophisticated users are encouraged to donate bandwidth to the Tor network by running a relay. Bank robbers use getaway cars on public highways to commit crimes. Tor has tons of legitimate uses and is considered by many a cornerstone of democracy today. As a practical matter, Tor is for ordinary people, because criminals willing to break the law can achieve better anonymity than Tor provides. As the Tor FAQ points out:.
Criminals can already do bad things. They can steal cell phones, use them, and throw them in a ditch; they can crack into computers in Korea or Brazil and use them to launch abusive activities; they can use spyware, viruses, and other techniques to take control of literally millions of Windows machines around the world. Tor aims to provide protection for ordinary people who want to follow the law.
Only criminals have privacy right now, and we need to fix that. Tor Browser offers the best anonymous web browsing available today, but that anonymity is not perfect. The most successful technique to de-anonymize Tor Browser users has been to hack them. The FBI has used this technique successfully in numerous criminal cases, and under Rule 41 , enacted in by US Chief Justice Roberts of the Supreme Court, the FBI can now mass hack large numbers of computers anywhere in the world using a single warrant.
Such hacking techniques ought to concern everyone, as innocent Tor users will inevitably get caught up in such fishing expeditions. Certainly not, if you care about your privacy online. Tor is one of the easiest ways to browse the web anonymously.
Tor is short for The Onion Router thus the logo and was initially a worldwide network of servers developed with the U. Navy that enabled people to browse the internet anonymously. The Tor network disguises your identity by encrypting your traffic and moving it across different Tor relays within the network.
Software engineer Robert Heaton has a great summary of how this keeps you theoretically anonymous:. Anyone monitoring your internet connection or that of the server could trivially inspect your IP packet headers, discover the IP addresses of both you and the server, and deduce that you were communicating with each other. But - as Person X knows all too well - sometimes even just knowing who you are communicating with is all the information an adversary needs.
Instead, the Tor browser constructs a twisty path through a random set of 3 Tor nodes, and sends your data via this circuit. The browser starts by sending your data to the first or guard node in the circuit. The guard node sends your data on to the second or middle node. The server sends its response back to the exit node, which takes care of propagating the response back to you, via the rest of the circuit.
Work out anywhere This pedal machine is lightweight and even includes a handle so you can bring it wherever you need. Eight resistance settings keep your legs challenged all day long. All you have to do to access Tor is download the Tor browser. Launch it, and everything you do in the browser will go through the Tor network.
That said, since your data is going to hop through a lot of relays, your experience on Tor might be more sluggish than your normal internet browsing. Tor is useful for anyone who wants to keep their internet activities out of the hands of advertisers, ISPs, and websites. The Tor network can also host websites that are only accessible by other Tor users. You can find everything from free textbooks to drugs on the Dark Web—and worse—so long as you know the special URL that takes you to these sites.
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The browser is available for Linux, macOS and Windows desktop and laptop computers. All Tor Browser data is encrypted and relayed three times over the Onion Router network, which is composed of thousands of volunteer-run servers, which are known as Tor relays. This encryption and relaying of your browsing data prevents anyone who is watching from detecting which websites you are visiting. Your Tor activity can be hidden more about that later. The Tor Browser is configured to make all users look the same, making it nearly impossible for users to be fingerprinted based on their browser and device information.
In an onion network, messages are encased in layers of encryption, much like the layers of an onion. The encrypted data is sent through a series of network-based nodes called onion routers. All of this keeps the sender anonymous, thanks to how each intermediary node only knows the location of the previous and next node.
This provides high-level anonymity and security. Because of the relaying of data through the onion nodes, and the encrypting and decrypting taking place at each node, your internet connection will slow considerably. This means the Tor Browser is not recommended for streaming video, playing games or downloading large files.
While the Tor Browser and the Onion Network can be considered an excellent way to protect your online privacy and anonymity, it is by no means a perfect solution, and it has a few weaknesses. Since each node server in the Tor network is volunteer-operated, you never know who operates the relays that your data is traveling through. The exit node removes the final layer of encryption on your data. When you install the Tor Browser, it comes preconfigured with the most secure privacy settings.
Since your traffic goes through a series of relays, getting encrypted or decrypted along the way, things slow way down. This means Tor is a lousy option for streaming video, online gaming or downloading files torrenting. If you need to protect or enhance your streaming, gaming, or torrenting activities, a Virtual Private Network VPN is a much better option as a secure connection to the net.
That makes you a target for being monitored. If you want to protect all of your daily internet activity, try a VPN. While the Tor Browser hides your online browsing, it only hides your online activity through the Tor Browser. All of your other online activities remain open to observation. This is why I strongly suggest using a Virtual Private Network to protect and enhance all of your online activities.
A VPN keeps all of your online activities — including your web browsing, online gaming, streaming and file sharing — undercover and safe from being tracked or recorded. A secure VPN server slows down your browsing much less than the Tor Browser and also opens access to geo-blocked local content around the globe. This makes it a great option for watching videos from streaming services that are available only in other regions of the world.
That said, the Tor Browser and a VPN make an excellent team for protecting your online activities from prying eyes, and provide optimal online privacy protection. There are two ways to use Tor and a VPN in tandem. Then the Tor anonymity network relays further obfuscate your true location, as it relays your browser traffic through several relay locations. Using a VPN in conjunction with the Tor Browser is an excellent way to keep your online travels secure and private.
ExpressVPN offers top-notch encrypted protection, a kill switch that keeps your Tor usage from being inadvertently exposed, fast download speeds, comprehensive global server coverage, and excellent multi-platform app support. For more information about the best VPN providers for use with Tor, click here. The dark web is web content that exists on darknets, which are overlay networks on the internet that require specialized software such as the Tor Browser , configurations, and authorization to access.
Arguably, the best-known tool used to access the dark web is the Tor Browser. The dark web is a refuge for information leakers and whistleblowers. Edward Snowden used the Tor global network on a regular basis. The dark web is the perfect avenue for communicating and publishing sensitive information with no fear of retribution, such as imprisonment. The dark web is a popular privacy tool for activists and revolutionaries such as Anonymous. It serves as a way for activists to organize gatherings and other activities in secret, with no worries about giving away their plans or position away to the authorities.
The dark web is a very popular platform for journalists, political bloggers, and political news publishers, especially for those living in countries where strict censorship shields are the rule. Unfortunately, the dark web is also where underground marketplaces flourish, selling drugs, weapons, stolen IDs and credit cards, and other ill-gotten goods.
It is also used to facilitate human trafficking, money laundering, and worse. Tor is necessary to access these onion services. Onion services were first specified in  and have been deployed on the Tor network since Because onion services route their traffic entirely through the Tor network, connection to an onion service is encrypted end-to-end and not subject to eavesdropping.
There are, however, security issues involving Tor onion services. For example, services that are reachable through Tor onion services and the public Internet are susceptible to correlation attacks and thus not perfectly hidden. Other pitfalls include poorly configured services e. Onion services can also be accessed from a standard web browser without client-side connection to the Tor network, using services like Tor2web.
It runs on any platform supported by curses including Linux , macOS , and other Unix-like variants. The project began in the summer of ,   and since 18 July it has been an official part of the Tor Project. Like all current low-latency anonymity networks , Tor cannot and does not attempt to protect against monitoring of traffic at the boundaries of the Tor network i.
While Tor does provide protection against traffic analysis , it cannot prevent traffic confirmation also called end-to-end correlation. In spite of known weaknesses and attacks listed here, a study revealed Tor and the alternative network system JonDonym Java Anon Proxy, JAP are considered more resilient to website fingerprinting techniques than other tunneling protocols. The reason for this is conventional single-hop VPN protocols do not need to reconstruct packet data nearly as much as a multi-hop service like Tor or JonDonym.
Currently, there are ten directory authority nodes, and their health is publicly monitored. The IP addresses of the authority nodes are hard coded into each Tor client. The authority nodes vote every hour to update the consensus, and clients download the most recent consensus on startup. If an autonomous system AS exists on both path segments from a client to entry relay and from exit relay to destination, such an AS can statistically correlate traffic on the entry and exit segments of the path and potentially infer the destination with which the client communicated.
In , LASTor proposed a method to predict a set of potential ASes on these two segments and then avoid choosing this path during the path selection algorithm on the client side. In this paper, they also improve latency by choosing shorter geographical paths between a client and destination.
In September , Dan Egerstad, a Swedish security consultant, revealed he had intercepted usernames and passwords for e-mail accounts by operating and monitoring Tor exit nodes. While this may not inherently breach the anonymity of the source, traffic intercepted in this way by self-selected third parties can expose information about the source in either or both of payload and protocol data.
Who would pay for this and be anonymous? In October a tor researcher revealed that since at least there were a more than one hundred of highly suspicious relay nodes that were running on previously unprecedented scale by an unknown group.
In October , a research team from ESIEA claimed to have discovered a way to compromise the Tor network by decrypting communication passing over it. Then, using these known keys and seeds, they claim the ability to decrypt two encryption layers out of three. They claim to break the third key by a statistical attack. In order to redirect Tor traffic to the nodes they controlled, they used a denial-of-service attack.
There are two methods of traffic-analysis attack, passive and active. In the passive traffic-analysis method, the attacker extracts features from the traffic of a specific flow on one side of the network and looks for those features on the other side of the network. In the active traffic-analysis method, the attacker alters the timings of the packets of a flow according to a specific pattern and looks for that pattern on the other side of the network; therefore, the attacker can link the flows in one side to the other side of the network and break the anonymity of it.
Steven Murdoch and George Danezis from University of Cambridge presented an article at the IEEE Symposium on security and privacy on traffic-analysis techniques that allow adversaries with only a partial view of the network to infer which nodes are being used to relay the anonymous streams.
Murdoch and Danezis have also shown that otherwise unrelated streams can be linked back to the same initiator. This attack, however, fails to reveal the identity of the original user. Operators of Internet sites have the ability to prevent traffic from Tor exit nodes or to offer reduced functionality for Tor users.
For example, it is not generally possible to edit Wikipedia when using Tor or when using an IP address also used by a Tor exit node. The BBC blocks the IP addresses of all known Tor guards and exit nodes from its iPlayer service, although relays and bridges are not blocked. One method of attack depends on control of an exit node or hijacking tracker responses, while a secondary attack method is based in part on the statistical exploitation of distributed hash table tracking. The results presented in the bad apple attack research paper are based on an attack launched against the Tor network by the authors of the study.
The attack targeted six exit nodes, lasted for twenty-three days, and revealed a total of 10, IP addresses of active Tor users. This study is significant because it is the first documented attack designed to target P2P file-sharing applications on Tor. The study was conducted by monitoring six exit nodes for a period of twenty-three days. Researches used three attack vectors : . With this technique, researchers were able to identify other streams initiated by users, whose IP addresses were revealed.
Jansen et al. The attack works using a colluding client and server, and filling the queues of the exit node until the node runs out of memory, and hence can serve no other genuine clients. By attacking a significant proportion of the exit nodes this way, an attacker can degrade the network and increase the chance of targets using nodes controlled by the attacker.
On 30 July the Tor Project issued the security advisory "relay early traffic confirmation attack" in which the project discovered a group of relays that tried to de-anonymize onion service users and operators. The attacking relays were stable enough to achieve being designated as "suitable as hidden service directory" and "suitable as entry guard"; therefore, both the onion service users and the onion services might have used those relays as guards and hidden service directory nodes.
The attacking nodes joined the network early in the year on 30 January and the project removed them on 4 July. The project mentioned the following mitigations besides removing the attacking relays from the network:. In November there was speculation in the aftermath of Operation Onymous , resulting in 17 arrests internationally, that a Tor weakness had been exploited. A representative of Europol was secretive about the method used, saying: " This is something we want to keep for ourselves.
Andrew Lewman—a Tor Project representative—downplayed this possibility, suggesting that execution of more traditional police work was more likely. In November court documents on the matter  addressed concerns about security research ethics  [ non-primary source needed ] and the right of not being unreasonably searched as guaranteed by the US Fourth Amendment. In , the administrators of Agora , a darknet market , announced they were taking the site offline in response to a recently discovered security vulnerability in Tor.
They did not say what the vulnerability was, but Wired speculated it was the "Circuit Fingerprinting Attack" presented at the Usenix security conference. A study showed "anonymization solutions protect only partially against target selection that may lead to efficient surveillance" as they typically "do not hide the volume information necessary to do target selection".
Upon termination of a session the browser which moves by a Private browsing mode deletes privacy-sensitive data such as HTTP cookies and the browsing history. To allow download from places where accessing the Tor Project URL may be risky or blocked, a GitHub repository is maintained with links for releases hosted in other domains.
OnionShare allows to share files using Tor. The Guardian Project is actively developing a free and open-source suite of applications and firmware for the Android operating system to improve the security of mobile communications. Onion Browser  is open-source, privacy-enhancing web browser for iOS , which uses Tor. Several security-focused operating systems make extensive use of Tor. Tor has been praised for providing privacy and anonymity to vulnerable Internet users such as political activists fearing surveillance and arrest, ordinary web users seeking to circumvent censorship, and people who have been threatened with violence or abuse by stalkers.
National Security Agency NSA has called Tor "the king of high-secure, low-latency Internet anonymity",  and BusinessWeek magazine has described it as "perhaps the most effective means of defeating the online surveillance efforts of intelligence agencies around the world". Advocates for Tor say it supports freedom of expression , including in countries where the Internet is censored, by protecting the privacy and anonymity of users.
The mathematical underpinnings of Tor lead it to be characterized as acting "like a piece of infrastructure , and governments naturally fall into paying for infrastructure they want to use". The project was originally developed on behalf of the U.
State Department , the Broadcasting Board of Governors , and the National Science Foundation as major contributors,  aiming "to aid democracy advocates in authoritarian states". Naval Research Laboratory , and the Government of Sweden.
Tor executive director Andrew Lewman said that even though it accepts funds from the U. Critics say that Tor is not as secure as it claims,  pointing to U. The citation read, "Using free software, Tor has enabled roughly 36 million people around the world to experience freedom of access and expression on the Internet while keeping them in control of their privacy and anonymity. Its network has proved pivotal in dissident movements in both Iran and more recently Egypt.
In , Foreign Policy magazine named Dingledine, Mathewson, and Syverson among its Top Global Thinkers "for making the web safe for whistleblowers". In , Jacob Appelbaum described Tor as a "part of an ecosystem of software that helps people regain and reclaim their autonomy. It helps to enable people to have agency of all kinds; it helps others to help each other and it helps you to help yourself. It runs, it is open and it is supported by a large community spread across all walks of life.
In September , in response to reports that Comcast had been discouraging customers from using the Tor Browser, Comcast issued a public statement that "We have no policy against Tor, or any other browser or software. In October , The Tor Project hired the public relations firm Thomson Communications to improve its public image particularly regarding the terms "Dark Net" and "hidden services," which are widely viewed as being problematic and to educate journalists about the technical aspects of Tor.
In July , the Tor Project announced an alliance with the Library Freedom Project to establish exit nodes in public libraries. Although the DHS had alerted New Hampshire authorities to the fact that Tor is sometimes used by criminals, the Lebanon Deputy Police Chief and the Deputy City Manager averred that no pressure to strong-arm the library was applied, and the service was re-established on 15 September Surveillance has a very well-documented chilling effect on intellectual freedom.
It is the job of librarians to remove barriers to information. In August , an IBM security research group, called "X-Force", put out a quarterly report that advised companies to block Tor on security grounds, citing a "steady increase" in attacks from Tor exit nodes as well as botnet traffic.
In September , Luke Millanta created OnionView, a web service that plots the location of active Tor relay nodes onto an interactive map of the world. In March , New Hampshire state representative Keith Ammon introduced a bill  allowing public libraries to run privacy software.
The bill specifically referenced Tor. The text was crafted with extensive input from Alison Macrina , the director of the Library Freedom Project. On 16 May , CNN reported on the case of core Tor developer isis agora lovecruft,  who had fled to Germany under the threat of a subpoena by the FBI during the Thanksgiving break of the previous year.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation legally represented lovecruft. On 2 December , The New Yorker reported on burgeoning digital privacy and security workshops in the San Francisco Bay Area , particularly at the hackerspace Noisebridge , in the wake of the United States presidential election ; downloading the Tor browser was mentioned. Tor and Bitcoin was fundamental to the operation of the darkweb marketplace AlphaBay , which was taken down in an international law enforcement operation in July The Russian-speaking underground offering a crime-as-a-service model is regarded as being particularly robust.
In June , Venezuela blocked access to the Tor network. The block affected both direct connections to the network and connections being made via bridge relays. On 20 June , Bavarian police raided the homes of the board members of the non-profit Zwiebelfreunde, a member of torservers. The hardware and documentation seized had been kept under seal, and purportedly were neither analyzed nor evaluated by the Bavarian police.
Since October , Chinese online communities within Tor have begun to dwindle due to increased efforts to stop them by the Chinese government. In November , Edward Snowden called for a full, unabridged simplified Chinese translation of his autobiography, Permanent Record , as the Chinese publisher had violated their agreement by expurgating all mentions of Tor and other matters deemed politically sensitive by the Communist Party of China.
Tor responded to earlier vulnerabilities listed above by patching them and improving security. In one way or another, human user errors can lead to detection. The Tor Project website provides the best practices instructions on how to properly use the Tor browser.
When improperly used, Tor is not secure. For example, Tor warns its users that not all traffic is protected; only the traffic routed through the Tor browser is protected. Users are also warned to use HTTPS versions of websites, not to torrent with Tor, not to enable browser plugins, not to open documents downloaded through Tor while online, and to use safe bridges.
The best tactic of law enforcement agencies to de-anonymize users appears to remain with Tor-relay adversaries running poisoned nodes, as well as counting on the users themselves using the Tor browser improperly. When properly used, odds of being de-anonymized through Tor are said to be extremely low. At present the Tor network offers, out of a total of around 7, relays, around 2, guard entry nodes and around 1, exit nodes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 4 January Free and open-source anonymity network based on onion routing. This article is about the software and anonymity network. For other uses, see Tor disambiguation. This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling.
You can assist by editing it. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Tor Project logo. Further information: Dark web. Infographic about how Tor works, by EFF. See also: List of Tor onion services. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. September The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Tor Browser on Ubuntu showing its start page — about:tor. Android Windows XP and later Unix-like inc. Play media.
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Tor — свободное и открытое программное обеспечение для реализации второго и третьего поколения так называемой луковой маршрутизации. Это система прокси-серверов, позволяющая устанавливать анонимное сетевое соединение, защищённое от прослушивания. Tor (сокр. от англ. The Onion Router) — свободное и открытое программное обеспечение для Главная страница проекта Tor, запущенная в Tor Browser. Tor Browser for Android is the only official mobile browser supported by the Tor Project, developers of the world's strongest tool for privacy and freedom.